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Voles are the most numerous family of rodents.
There are more than a hundred species of them, which have a wide geographical distribution.
Many species of voles belong to pests.
This also applies to such a species as the root vole.
The appearance of the root vole
The root vole grows up up to 15 cm in length. This is more than representatives of other vole species.
The wool on the back has brown or brown color... The tail is most often of two colors. Its upper side is darker than the lower one. The paws are gray with a brown tint.
This type of vole got its name due to its thrifty... The housekeeper is able to do for the winter stocks weighing up to 15 kg.
Mainly roots and bulbs of plants.
There is information that the stocks of northern voles can even reach 100 kg. Some northern peoples use edible plants from the pantry of voles for food.
In the photo, you can clearly see the housekeeper vole:
Distribution - habitat
The habitat of housekeepers is very wide. They are found in the forest zone starting from Central Europe to Alaska.
Voles settle in meadows, fields, near cities or in urban wastelands, as well as in vegetable gardens.
Root voles live small colonies... Usually these are several broods from one pair of animals.
They are located in separate burrows close to each other. Inside the minks, voles make themselves grass nests.
It is interesting that the female's habitat covers 300 - 1000 square meters. In this case, the areas of females never intersect. Male sites are slightly larger. But they can overlap each other or on the territory of the female.
What are harmful to the human farmer and control measures
The main harm of the root vole is associated with its nutritional features... The main diet of the vole in the warm season is young shoots of cerealsas well as their roots... Read about what the vole eats in the steppe, forest, taiga and meadows here.
Thus, these rodents inflict significant crop damage cereal plants.
In addition, it is this type of rodent that is the main leptospirosis distributor... There are also known cases of transmission of tularemia and erysipelas by voles.
Roe vole is an endangered species rodent pests and listed in the Red Book... This fact makes it impossible to use poisons to combat them.
In the case of this type, the following protection methods can be applied:
- physical - traps, traps;
- mechanical - sticky masses;
- ultrasonic - a device that is tuned to the frequency of a particular species of animals.
All traps are designed so that they do not attract rodents, but are located in places of their supposed movement.
However, over the years of using this method, voles have learned to bypass exposed traps. Therefore, the effectiveness of this method not high.
A more efficient method, while does no harm animals. Based on their capture.
Low height sticky trap allows her to remain unnoticed by the animal. And the sticky surface does not allow the trapped pest to escape.
The most effective and modern method scaring away pests.
The device is safe for humans and animals. If a rodent is found in a certain area, the device is tuned to a frequency suitable for this species.
Voles simply leave the siteaffected by such a device.
In addition to cereals, the root vole also eats grass and, rarely, seeds plants and insects. In winter, the animals eat supplies from their pantries and the bark of trees.
The bark is eaten from those areas that are under the snow. Housekeepers do not leave the shelter in winter.
Voles can be active throughout the day. But most active time for these rodents after all night.
This is probably due to the fact that in the dark it is easier for the animals to protect themselves from larger predators.
The root vole reaches sexual maturity at the age of two months. The female gives 2 - 3 broods per year... Most often they occur during the warm season.
In one brood, on average five cubs... But there are times when their number ranges from one to fifteen.
The small rodent, the root vole, can cause minor damage to the farm. Moreover, these animals are carriers of dangerous diseases.
But the species is threatened with extinction, which complicates the fight against it.